When under the influence of smoking, tea and coffee abuse all teeth gradually change hue – this rarely cause a concern. Such changes are usually imperceptible to the person — even coloring of teeth looks natural. But the situation is perceived quite differently when one tooth has changed color. It begins sharply differ from the adjacent teeth and it makes think of any pathology. And, as a rule, such thoughts have a basis.
Causes and related symptoms
When a tooth has changed color, in most cases, this is due to surface or internal coloring.
Surface coloring. It occurs as a result of damage to the enamel – the most durable and dense part of the tooth that performs a protective function. When tooth change color after injury or a crack (even microscopic) on the enamel, the tooth begins to darken starting with the damaged area: the most intense coloring in the area crack goes into a lighter color around the edges. The area of pigmented spot is usually increased. In addition, ta tooth acquires sensitivity to hot and cold, sugary and acidic foods.
The same surface coloring can occur after removing the braces and dental crowns, if they were made of low-quality materials. Prolonged contact of enamel with metal connections can lead to spots of “rusty” to green color — it depends on what metal ions take reaction with enamel.
Interior coloring. If the tooth has become darken after a relatively recent dental treatment, the cause of such changes can be drugs used during filling. They are able to color inside the tooth in color from orange to dark brown, and this effect can be explained by individual tissue reaction to chemical compounds that are used when processing the tooth before filling. Pain or other symptoms are not observed, but there may be swelling and itching of the gums in case of allergic reaction.
Another common cause of darkening of the tooth is the pulp necrosis. This process is accompanied by the death of blood vessels and nerve tissues that are located under the dentine. In most cases, the pathology begins with acute throbbing pain caused by inflammation of the pulp. As the disease transforms into chronic, pain becomes less intense, and when necroses of the pulp the tooth begins to darken. This process becomes visible in the part of the tooth bordering the gum. Tooth changes color after root canal, there appear sometimes bluish-black spot, which gradually spreads to the whole dental crown. Before the tooth begins to darken, he often becomes “glass” — gives the impression of a transparent, which is associated with the destruction of dentine from the inside.
Regardless of the causes of tooth darkening, this condition refers to the abnormal — gradually certain processes have resulted in the destruction of teeth that negatively affects the state of the whole dentition. Surface coloring mainly has aesthetic nature of the defect, but you should take into account the impact on the underlying causes of this condition – cracks or splits. These injuries substantially facilitate the development of caries, which could lead to the complete destruction of the tooth.
Coloring inside is much more dangerous because it can cause complications to your overall health:
chronic stomatitis caused by an allergic reaction to a filling material;
the spread of inflammation with periodontal tissue in the pulp and jaw;
systemic allergic reaction, respiratory and gastro-intestinal manifestations of allergy.
The importance of dental treatment why tooth bonding color change is to prevent negative effects, so you should not treat this as cosmetic trouble — visit a doctor immediately as soon as notice any signs of trouble.
If the tooth became darker, the treatment aims to eliminate the causes of this condition, and only then to restore the aesthetics.
When the surface coloring, ultrasound and laser bleaching methods can be applied, in which there is a deep clarification of enamel and dentin in part. After achieving the desired result, it is necessary to reconstruct enamel layer to prevent repeated coloring and protect the tooth from breaking. For this purpose dental polymers may be used that provide enhanced artificial layer of enamel, or remineralizing compounds that are naturally nourish enamel with calcium and strengthen it.
When tooth changed color inside, crown preparation is almost always conducted. After gaining access to the inner surface of the tooth, the dentist spends removing filling materials, clears the dentin using a drill and/or special whitening solutions, and then restores the size and shape of a tooth, but already using other restoration materials.
When coloring of the tooth as a result of pulp necrosis, the technique is fundamentally has no differences: the doctor removes the pulp itself and changed tissues of dentin. Then he uses a special gel on the inner surface of the tooth and warms up it laser beam — under the influence of laser energy, chemical substances in the composition of the gel are active and have a bleaching effect. In conclusion, the doctor seals the tooth crown.
In severe cases, when the dark color of the tooth cannot be resolved using existing tools and methods, or for some reason bleaching is contraindicated, it is recommended to install a thin lining (veneer or lumineer). It exactly imitates its own tooth enamel, hides cosmetic imperfections and performs protective function — limits the effects of aggressive substances on the tooth.